RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an advanced automatic identification technology which, within its readable reach, can remotely read the required information from a tracked target attached to an RFID tag (usually information stored as a set of the unique electronic identification code used for identification and other information), without the need for a mechanical or an optical contact between the identification system and the RFID tag1. A typical RFID system consists of the following basic components: RFID tags (can be attached to the target to be tracked), an antenna, a reader and the host file system. After the data is read by the reader, it is transferred through an RFID middleware which brings greater ease with which the reader and other application software transfer the data and which makes communication between different readers and application software easier. Figure 1 shows a typical RFID system, and explains how each part operates to complement each other.
1 林妍,「物聯網安全嗎?嬰兒監控器夜半 驚魂」,大紀元,2014 年 5 月 14 日。
Different RFID frequencies are used in different uses, but can be broadly divided into the following categories: low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), ultra-high frequency (UHF) and microwave. As for the types of RFID tags, categorisation is mainly dependent on its source of power, and there are three categories: active tags, battery-assisted passive tags and passive tags. Types of RFID tags, placement, type of material and tag orientation and polarization and reader antenna complexes and other factors will affect the read range, accuracy, and limit its application.
Currently, RFID is used in many ways, such as: the source-free RFID system that is used for patient monitoring, RFID-based intelligent transport systems application solutions, RFID-based residential district security systems, RFID access control systems and electronic traceability technology.
In 2006, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) began to value the standardization of RFID application systems, and have therefore provided a kind of framework for RFID application systems2. At present, RFID technology is ever-improving, and many protocol and standards that correspond to RFID technology have come into existence, such as, the air interface communication protocol, which standardises the exchange of information between readers and RFID tags, and makes interoperability and connectivity between devices from different manufacturers possible3.
2 經濟部標準檢驗局,國家標準發展策略研 究計畫 國家標準發展策略 白皮書 ( 第 2 版 ),2007 年。
3 郎為民,ISO/IEC 的 RFID 標準化進程, 武漢:解放軍通信指揮學院。
Despite its very rapid development, RFID technology is still facing challenges and obstacles in terms of full application. With the widespread application of RFID technology, the sharing of RFID data has become more and more important, and so has the standardisation of data security. Misgivings about the safety of RFID-related data has limited the adoption of RFID technology.